Ma ka hana ka 'ike . . . In working one learns

AECT Standards Reference

Standard 1: DESIGN

Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to design conditions for learning by applying principles of instructional systems design, message design, instructional strategies, and learner characteristics.

Supporting Explanations:
"Design is the process of specifying conditions for learning" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 30). The domain of design includes four subdomains of theory and practice: Instructional Systems Design (ISD), Message Design, Instructional Strategies, and Learner Characteristics.

1.1 Instructional Systems Design (ISD) "Instructional Systems Design (ISD) is an organized procedure that includes the steps of analyzing, designing, developing, implementing, and evaluating instruction"(Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 31). Within the application of this definition, 'design' is interpreted at both a macro- and micro-level in that it describes the systems approach and is a step within the systems approach. The importance of process, as opposed to product, is emphasized in ISD.
  • 1.1.1 Analyzing: process of defining what is to be learned and the context in which it is to be learned.
  • 1.1.2 Designing: process of specifying how it is to be learned.
  • 1.1.3 Developing: process of authoring and producing the instructional materials.
  • 1.1.4 Implementing: actually using the materials and strategies in context.
  • 1.1.5 Evaluating: process of determining the adequacy of the instruction.

1.2 Message Design "Message design involves planning for the manipulation of the physical form of the message" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 31). Message design is embedded within learning theories (cognitive, psychomotor, behavioral, perceptual, affective, constructivist) in the application of known principles of attention, perception, and retention which are intended to communicate with the learner. This subdomain is specific to both the medium selected and the learning task.

1.3 Instructional Strategies "Instructional strategies are specifications for selecting and sequencing events and activities within a lesson" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 31). In practice, instructional strategies interact with learning situations. The results of these interactions are often described by instructional models. The appropriate selection of instructional strategies and instructional models depends upon the learning situation (including learner characteristics), the nature of the content, and the type of learner objective.

1.4 Learner Characteristics "Learner characteristics are those facets of the learner's experiential background that impact the effectiveness of a learning process" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 32). Learner characteristics impact specific components of instruction during the selection and implementation of instructional strategies. For example, motivation research influences the selection and implementation of instructional strategies based upon identified learner characteristics. Learner characteristics interact with instructional strategies, the learning situation, and the nature of the content.

Performances Indicative of the Design Standard The following indicators are examples of performances related to the design standard. 

1.1 Instructional Systems Design
  • 1.1.a Utilize and implement design principles which specify optimal conditions for learning.
  • 1.1.b Identify a variety of instructional systems design models and apply at least one model.
  • 1.1.c Identify learning theories from which each model is derived and the consequent implications.

1.1.1 Analyzing
  • 1.1.1.a Write appropriate objectives for specific content and outcome levels.
  • 1.1.1.b Analyze instructional tasks, content, and context.
  • 1.1.1.c Categorize objectives using an appropriate schema or taxonomy.
  • 1.1.1.d Compare and contrast curriculum objectives for their area(s) of preparation with federal, state, and/or professional content standards.

1.1.2 Designing
  • 1.1.2.a Create a plan for a topic of a content area (e.g., a thematic unit, a text chapter, an interdisciplinary unit) to demonstrate application of the principles of macro-level design.
  • 1.1.2.b Create instructional plans (micro-level design) that address the needs of all learners, including appropriate accommodations for learners with special needs.

1.1.3 Developing
  • 1.1.3.a Produce instructional materials which require the use of multiple media (e.g., computers, video, projection).
  • 1.1.3.b Demonstrate personal skill development with at least one: computer authoring application, video tool, or electronic communication application.

1.1.4 Implementing
  • 1.1.4.a Use instructional plans and materials which they have produced in contextualized instructional settings (e.g., practica, field experiences, training) that address the needs of all learners, including appropriate accommodations for learners with special needs.

1.1.5 Evaluating
  • 1.1.5.a Utilize a variety of assessment measures to determine the adequacy of learning and instruction.
  • 1.1.5.b Demonstrate the use of formative and summative evaluation within practice and contextualized field experiences.
  • 1.1.5.c Demonstrate congruency among goals/objectives, instructional strategies, and assessment measures.

1.2 Message Design
  • 1.2.a Apply principles of educational psychology, communications theory, and visual literacy to the selection of media for macro- and micro-level design of instruction.
  • 1.2.b Apply principles of educational psychology, communications theory, and visual literacy to the development of instructional messages specific to the learning task.
  • 1.2.c Understand, recognize and apply basic principles of message design in the development of a variety of communications with their learners.

1.3 Instructional Strategies
  • 1.3.a Select instructional strategies appropriate for a variety of learner characteristics and learning situations.
  • 1.3.b Identify at least one instructional model and demonstrate appropriate contextualized application within practice and field experiences.
  • 1.3.c Analyze their selection of instructional strategies and/or models as influenced by the learning situation, nature of the specific content, and type of learner objective.
  • 1.3.d Select motivational strategies appropriate for the target learners, task, and learning situation.

1.4 Learner Characteristics
  • 1.4.a Identify a broad range of observed and hypothetical learner characteristics for their particular area(s) of preparation.
  • 1.4.b Describe and/or document specific learner characteristics which influence the selection of instructional strategies.
  • 1.4.c Describe and/or document specific learner characteristics which influence the implementation of instructional strategies.


Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to develop instructional materials and experiences using print, audiovisual, computer-based, and integrated technologies.

Supporting Explanation: "Development is the process of translating the design specifications into physical form" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p.35). The domain of development includes four subdomains : Print Technologies, Audiovisual Technologies, Computer-Based Technologies, and Integrated Technologies. Development is tied to other areas of theory, research, design, evaluation, utilization, and management.

2.1 Print Technologies "Print technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials, such as books and static visual materials, primarily through mechanical or photographic printing processes" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 37). Print technologies include verbal text materials and visual materials; namely, text, graphic and photographic representation and reproduction. Print and visual materials provide a foundation for the development and utilization of the majority of other instructional materials.

2.2 Audiovisual Technologies  "Audiovisual technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials by using mechanical devices or electronic machines to present auditory and visual messages" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 38). Audiovisual technologies are generally linear in nature, represent real and abstract ideas, and allow for learner interactivity dependent on teacher application.

2.3 Computer-Based Technologies  "Computer-based technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials using microprocessor based resources" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 39). Computer-based technologies represent electronically stored information in the form of digital data. Examples include computer-based instruction(CBI), computer-assisted instruction (CAI), computermanaged instruction (CMI), telecommunications, electronic communications, and global resource/reference access.

2.4 Integrated Technologies  "Integrated technologies are ways to produce and deliver materials which encompass several forms of media under the control of a computer" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 40). Integrated technologies are typically hypermedia environments which allow for: (a) various levels of learner control, (b) high levels of interactivity, and (c) the creation of integrated audio, video, and graphic environments. Examples include hypermedia authoring and telecommunications tools such as electronic mail and the World Wide Web.

Performances Indicative of the Development Standard.  The following indicators are examples of performances related to the development standard. 

  • 2.0.1 Select appropriate media to produce effective learning environments using technology resources.
  • 2.0.2 Use appropriate analog and digital productivity tools to develop instructional and professional products.
  • 2.0.3 Apply instructional design principles to select appropriate technological tools for the development of instructional and professional products.
  • 2.0.4 Apply appropriate learning and psychological theories to the selection of appropriate technological tools and to the development of instructional and professional products.
  • 2.0.5 Apply appropriate evaluation strategies and techniques for assessing effectiveness of instructional and professional products.
  • 2.0.6 Use the results of evaluation methods and techniques to revise and update instructional and professional products.
  • 2.0.7 Contribute to a professional portfolio by developing and selecting a variety of productions for inclusion in the portfolio.

2.1 Print Technologies
  • 2.1.1 Develop instructional and professional products using a variety of technological tools to produce text for communicating information.
  • 2.1.2 Produce print communications (e.g., flyers, posters, brochures, newsletters) combining words and images/graphics using desktop publishing software.
  • 2.1.3 Use presentation application software to produce presentations and supplementary materials for instructional and professional purposes.
  • 2.1.4 Produce instructional and professional products using various aspects of integrated application programs.

2.2 Audiovisual Technologies
  • 2.2.1 Apply principles of visual and media literacy for the development and production of instructional and professional materials and products.
  • 2.2.2 Apply development techniques such as storyboarding and or scriptwriting to plan for the development of audio/video technologies.
  • 2.2.3 Use appropriate video equipment (e.g., camcorders, video editing) to prepare effective instructional and professional products.
  • 2.2.4 Use a variety of projection devices with appropriate technology tools to facilitate presentations and instruction.

2.3 Computer-Based Technologies
  • 2.3.1 Design and produce audio/video instructional materials which use computer-based technologies.
  • 2.3.2 Design, produce, and use digital information with computer-based technologies.
  • 2.3.3 Use imaging devices (e.g., digital cameras, video cameras, scanners) to produce computer based instructional materials.

2.4 Integrated Technologies
  • 2.4.1 Use authoring tools to create effective hypermedia/multimedia instructional materials or products.
  • 2.4.2 Develop and prepare instructional materials and products for various distance education delivery technologies.
  • 2.4.3 Combine electronic and non-electronic media to produce instructional materials, presentations, and products.
  • 2.4.4 Use telecommunications tools such as electronic mail and browsing tools for the World Wide Web to develop instructional and professional products.
  • 2.4.5 Develop effective Web pages with appropriate links using various technological tools (e.g., print technologies, imaging technologies, and video).
  • 2.4.6 Use writable CD-ROMs to record productions using various technological tools.
  • 2.4.7 Use appropriate software for capturing Web pages, audio wave files, and video files for developing off-line presentations.


Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to use processes and resources for learning by applying principles and theories of media utilization, diffusion, implementation, and policy-making.

Supporting Explanations  "Utilization is the act of using processes and resources for learning" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 46). This domain involves matching learners with specific materials and activities, preparing learners for interacting with those materials, providing guidance during engagement, providing assessment of the results, and incorporating this usage into the continuing procedures of the organization.

3.1 Media Utilization  "Media utilization is the systematic use of resources for learning" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 46). Utilization is the decision-making process of implementation based on instructional design specifications.

3.2 Diffusion of Innovations  "Diffusion of innovations is the process of communicating through planned strategies for the purpose of gaining adoption" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 46). With an ultimate goal of bringing about change, the process includes stages such as awareness, interest, trial, and adoption.

3.3 Implementation and Institutionalization "Implementation is using instructional materials or strategies in real (not simulated) settings. Institutionalization is the continuing, routine use of the instructional innovation in the structure and culture of an organization" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 47). The purpose of implementation is to facilitate appropriate use of the innovation by individuals in the organization. The goal of institutionalization is to integrate the innovation within the structure and behavior of the organization.

3.4 Policies and Regulations  "Policies and regulations are the rules and actions of society (or its surrogates) that affect the diffusion and use of Instructional Technology" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 47). This includes such areas as web-based instruction, instructional and community television, copyright law, standards for equipment and programs, use policies, and the creation of a system which supports the effective and ethical utilization of instructional technology products and processes.

Performances Indicative of the Utilization Standard   The following indicators are examples of performances related to the utilization standard. 

3.1 Media Utilization
  • 3.1.1 Identify key factors in selecting and using technologies appropriate for learning situations specified in the instructional design process.
  • 3.1.2 Use educational communications and instructional technology (ECIT) resources in a variety of learning contexts.

3.2 Diffusion of Innovations
  • 3.2.1 Identify strategies for the diffusion, adoption, and dissemination of innovations in learning communities.

3.3 Implementation and Institutionalization
  • 3.3.1 Use appropriate instructional materials and strategies in various learning contexts.
  • 3.3.2 Identify and apply techniques for integrating ECIT innovations in various learning contexts.
  • 3.3.3 Identify strategies to maintain use after initial adoption.

3.4 Policies and Regulations
  • 3.4.1 Identify and apply standards for the use of instructional technology.
  • 3.4.2 Identify and apply policies which incorporate professional ethics within practice.
  • 3.4.3 Identify and apply copyright and fair use guidelines within practice.
  • 3.4.4 Identify and implement effective policies related to the utilization, application, and integration of instructional technologies.
  • 3.4.5 Identify policies and regulations which apply to the utilization, application, and integration of distance delivery technologies.

Standard 4: MANAGEMENT

Candidates demonstrate knowledge, skills, and dispositions to plan, organize, coordinate, and supervise instructional technology by applying principles of project, resource, delivery system, and information management.

Supporting Explanations:   "Management involves controlling Instructional Technology through planning, organizing, coordinating, and supervising" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 49). The domain of management includes four subdomains of theory and practice: Project Management, Resource Management, Delivery System Management, and Information Management. Within each of these subdomains there is a common set of tasks to be accomplished: organization must be assured, personnel hired and supervised, funds planned and accounted for, facilities developed and maintained, and short and long-term goals established. A manager is a leader who motivates, directs, coaches, supports, monitors performance, delegates, and communicates.

4.1 Project Management  "Project management involves planning, monitoring, and controlling instructional design and development projects" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 50). Project managers negotiate, budget, install information monitoring systems and evaluate progress.

4.2 Resource Management   "Resource management involves planning, monitoring, and controlling resource support systems and services" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 51). This includes documentation of cost effectiveness and justification of effectiveness or efficiency for learning as well as the resources of personnel, budget, supplies, time, facilities, and instructional resources.
4.3 Delivery System Management   "Delivery system management involves planning, monitoring and controlling 'the method by which distribution of instructional materials is organized' . . . [It is] a combination of medium and method of usage that is employed to present instructional information to a learner" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 51). This includes attention to hardware and software requirements, technical support for the users and developers, and process issues such as guidelines for designers, instructors, and ECIT support personnel.

4.4 Information Management   "Information management involves planning, monitoring, and controlling the storage, transfer, or processing of information in order to provide resources for learning" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 51). Information is available in many formats and candidates must be able to access and utilize a variety of information sources for their professional benefit and the benefit of their future learners.

Performances Indicative of the Management Standard The following indicators are examples of performances related to the management standard. 
  • 4.0.1 Demonstrate leadership attributes with individuals and groups (e.g., interpersonal skills, group dynamics, team building).
  • 4.1.1 Apply project management techniques in various learning and training contexts.
  • 4.2.1 Apply resource management techniques in various learning and training contexts.
  • 4.3.1 Apply delivery system management techniques in various learning and training contexts.
  • 4.4.1 Apply information management techniques in various learning and training contexts.

Standard 5: EVALUATION

Candidates demonstrate knowledge, skills, and dispositions to evaluate the adequacy of instruction and learning by applying principles, theories, and research related to problem analysis, criterion referenced measurement, formative and summative evaluation, and long-range planning.

Supporting Explanations:  "Evaluation is the process of determining the adequacy of instruction and learning" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 54). ECIT candidates demonstrate their understanding of the domain of evaluation through a variety of activities including problem analysis, criterion-referenced measurement, formative evaluation, and summative evaluation.

5.1 Problem Analysis   "Problem analysis involves determining the nature and parameters of the problem by using information-gathering and decision-making strategies" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 56). ECIT candidates exhibit technology competencies defined in the knowledge base. Candidates collect, analyze, and interpret data to modify and improve instruction and ECIT projects.

5.2 Criterion-Referenced Measurement   "Criterion-referenced measurement involves techniques for determining learner mastery of pre-specified content" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 56). ECIT candidates utilize criterion-referenced performance indicators in the assessment of instruction and ECIT projects.

5.3 Formative and Summative Evaluation  " Formative evaluation involves gathering information on adequacy and using this information as a basis for further development. Summative evaluation involves gathering information on adequacy and using this information to make decisions about utilization" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 57). ECIT candidates integrate formative and summative evaluation strategies and analyses into the development and modification of ECIT projects and programs.

5.4 long-range Planning   Long-range planning that focuses on the organization as a whole is strategic planning....Long-range is usually defined as a future period of about three to five years or longer. During strategic planning, managers are trying to decide in the present what must be done to ensure organizational success in the future." (Certo, et al, 1990, p. 168). ECIT candidates demonstrate formal efforts to address the future of this highly dynamic field including the systematic review and implementation of current ECIT developments and innovations.

Performances Indicative of the Evaluation Standard  The following indicators are examples of performances related to the evaluation standard. 

  • 5.0.1 Exhibit a knowledge of and display skill in the analysis of current educational communications and instructional technology (ECIT) research on evaluation in order to evaluate ECIT projects and programs.
  • 5.0.2 Demonstrate skill in the conception, design, implementation, and reporting of original ECIT research on evaluation in order to evaluate ECIT projects and programs.
  • 5.0.3 Apply theories underlying the five ECIT domains to instructional projects.
  • 5.0.4 Identify and apply strategies to develop and implement a long-range plan for an ECIT program or project.
Back to Illustrative Works